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    Water Treatment

    GENERALLY

    PURA-Fi is an aqueous solution of the naturally occurring copper sulphate. The copper sulphate of PURA-FI undergoes a special treatment which results in the formation of a unique hydrophilic mesh of copper ions (Cu2+) that diffuse evenly in the aqueous solution of PURA-FI with the help of stabilizers, ionizers, sequestering and buffering agents. The dissolution of copper in the water molecules of PURA-FI results in the creation of water ions [Cu (H2O)6]2+. This ion forms an octahedral complex structure with square distortion.

    When PURA-FI is applied to a large volume of water for disinfection, purification or maintenance, copper ions of PURA-FI diffuse uniformly throughout the whole water volume and achieve control of microorganisms quickly, safely and for a long period of time under a wide range of water conditions.

    The copper ions of PURA-FI remain active for long, depending on the microbial load they have to deal with, offering prolonged protection from biological pollution in contrast to other formulations whose action is limited in time. PURA-FI eliminates algae and cyanobacteria while at the same time it does not allow their development, it destroys a significant number of bacteria and protozoa and prevents the formation of salts maintaining water quality at a high natural state, without any effects on its taste or odor. Also, it neutralizes harmful chemical compounds which can cause further problems such as microbial contamination, rot, deterioration, etc.

    PURA-FI formulation is not influenced by weather conditions (high temperature, rain, air, etc.) and solar radiation (UV rays), has unlimited storage duration, does not react with other chemicals and is not dangerous when stored. It is used for the disinfection of drinking water, swimming pools, pool water, water storage tanks and for the decomposition of salts.

    In most cases the maximum dose of application is 16 ml PURA-FI per 1000 liters of water. A concentration of approximately 1.0 ppm of copper arises from this dose in treated water. If we take into account the above maximum concentration, application doses of PURA-FI can range from 1-liter PURA-FI in 60,000 liters of water to 1-liter PURA-FI in 600,000 liters of water depending on the intended outcome and the conditions of the water deposit to be treated. In exceptional extreme cases of very high microbial loads or when long residual action is desirable, the dose of PURA-FI can be increased to 4ppm of copper.

    PURA-FI can substitute chlorine for the disinfection of drinking water either as a sole application or as a synergist using a much smaller amount of chlorine. In water treated with chlorine, the ionized copper of PURA-FI at a concentration of 0.3-0.5 ppm (5-8 ml/1000 liters of water) is sufficient to keep water in safe healthy condition.

    Depending on the scope, the appropriate dose of PURA-FI is achieved either with a single and manual administration or through an automatic dosing pump in case copper supply must be continuous or at regular intervals due to renewal of the water volume to be disinfected. In order to maintain copper concentration at desired levels it is advisable to check copper ion levels with frequent and regular measurements.

    SIDE EFFECTS – TOXICITY

    PURA-FI is absolutely safe because it is not oxidized and it contains no chemicals that can be combined with other molecules or chemical compounds to create dangerous sub-products. It's a chemical formulation that was granted approval for disinfection of drinking water by the Department of Environmental Health of Canada.

    PURA-FI does not cause any toxicity issues when used as a disinfectant at the recommended application doses. Copper concentrations higher than 0.13 ppm are toxic to fish. Although PURA-FI is used for the control of algae and bacteria in commercial fish production facilities, doses should be administered with great care when fish are present. However, water containing from 0.04 to 0.1 ppm copper is very beneficial for all fish as it protects them from bacterial infections.

    For centuries copper has been used as a controlling agent of algae and bacteria with great success. Its beneficial effect on wound healing, mouth disinfection and water conservation was known to ancient civilizations such as the Aztecs, Egyptians and Greeks who used copper ware for storing water and copper solutions for treatment of ulcers, wounds and infections.

    Today copper is used in various forms and formulations for applications in various fields of activity. Since the active form of copper is only its ions, PURA-FI is the most advanced and drastic form of copper because full ionization of copper is achieved throughout the entire volume of its formulation. The copper of PURA-FI does not form sediment and agglomerates, it does not precipitate and it remains stable in ionic, active form even after 10 years. It can be applied for disinfection or cleaning of stored water, in ponds and recreational pools, in rural reservoirs for irrigation purposes in drinking water storage tanks and in sewage storage tanks. PURA-FI is the ideal water treatment formulation for the preventive maintenance of water to keep it free from biofouling.

    The most important application fields of PURA-FI are detailed below.

    A. DISINFECTION IN URBAN WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS

    PURA-FI controls algae and bacteria and eliminates odors better than any product in the market. It diffuses into water rapidly, it is effective in a variety of water conditions and it remains active until exhausted by the extermination action on microorganisms. These unique advantages significantly extend the intervals between applications compared to other competing products.

    PURA-FI is already the preferred solution in many water treatment plants in large municipalities around the world, where it controls the level of total organic carbon (TOC), non-safe toxic byproducts (DBP) and cyanobacteria that cause bad odors and poor taste in water. By definition, the level of TOC decreases with the prevention of algae and cyanobacteria development. Units using PURA-FI can reduce or eliminate other chemical and oxidative compounds that form DBPs. PURA-FI has the additional advantage of keeping piping lines, membranes and filters free from bio-membranes, sludge and salts, thus significantly reducing the additional operating costs for equipment maintenance.

    PURA-FI can also be used for water disinfection in large tanks of hotels, hospitals, factories, ships, or in small tanks of recreational watercrafts, chemical toilets and showers in camp sites.

    Β. DISINFECTION, CLEANING OF SWIMMING POOLS

    PURA-FI can substitute chlorine in swimming pools as the most convenient and easy bactericide and algicide formulation. The use of PURA-FI in swimming pool water results in low maintenance costs, no allergic reactions and disinfection of water which remains healthy for a longer period than using chlorine. PURA-FI does not evaporate and it does not create unpleasant odors.

    A concentration of 1 ppm ionic copper (16 ml PURA-FI /m³ of water) prevents the development of micro-organisms, while the administration of additional quantity of PURA-FI must be ensured when pool water is renewed or supplemented with additional water.

    C. APPLICATION IN FRUIT PROCESSING FACILITIES

    This application refers to the disinfection of water in storage tanks for use in the fresh fruit canning and to disinfection at specific stages in the production line where high water quality is necessary.

    Application in the pasteurization stage

    We take as an example a volume of water in the pasteurization stage which ranges from 60-70 m³. Depending on water hardness, if we keep a concentration range of Ionic copper at 0.5-1.0 ppm (8-16ml PURA-FI /m³ of water) in this water volume, the possibility of microorganism development is eliminated while at the same time we achieve breakdown of lime which impairs operation and performance of the mechanical equipment of the circuit.

    If the renewal water volume is about 30 m3 per hour, the amount of PURA-FI consumed in the circuit daily is 5-10 litres depending on water hardness.

    Application during the storage stage

    While maintaining a concentration of 2-4 ppm copper (32-64ml PURA-FI /1000 liters of water) in an aqueous solution, dipping and then drying of fruit is made before storage in cold rooms for preservation in a healthy state for longer time.

    It would be advisable to disinfect any storage crates with the same solution.

    D. APPLICATION TO WATER STORAGE TANKS FOR IRRIGATION

    This application refers to disinfection of water in storage tanks, which will be used for irrigation of crops.

    The volume of water in the storage stage is usually around 50 m³. Depending on water hardness, if we keep a concentration range of Ionic copper at 0.5-1.0 ppm (8-16ml PURA-FI /m³ of water) in this water volume, the possibility of microorganism development is eliminated while at the same time we achieve breakdown of lime which may impair operation and performance of the irrigation piping network.

    If we assume a renewal water volume of about 10 m3 per day, the amount of PURA-FI consumed in the circuit daily is 40-80 ml depending on the microbial load of water.

    In case we want to have a concentration of ionized copper at 4ppm, with the aim to achieve bacterial control in the fields through fertigation, the above quantities of PURA-FI must be multiplied by four.

    ADVANTAGES OF PURA-FI AND RESULTS FROM ITS USE

    • It is an easy, economical and ecological approach for the prevention of microorganism development in water
    • It contains positively charged copper ions that have 1/1000 of the bacterial size. These ions effectively exterminate algae and bacteria
    • It is 420 times more efficient than traditional copper sulphate products
    • It does not create dangerous by-products
    • It is effective at varying levels of pH (3-9) and carbonate alkalinity (25-100 mg CO3/L) of water
    • It does not evaporate and does not precipitate. Copper ions retain their disinfectant power in water for a long period until their depletion due to action on microorganisms
    • It is certified by the NSF (National Sanitation Foundation) and Health Canada.
    • Zero growth and complete elimination of bacteria and algae safely
    • Reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) levels
    • Easy handling, quick measurement and effective control. No mixing or use of expensive equipment is required. Simply spray or administer PURA-FI in the volume of water. Just this!
    • Avoidance of unpleasant odors due to either the active substance itself or to micro-organisms
    • Break down the salts/lime and prevention of their formation. It achieves cleaning of the water supply network and nozzles
    • Replacement of chlorine
    • Dose flexibility depending on the intended use (prevention or suppression, intended duration of action, industrial or agricultural use etc.)